difference favoring boys in math and 4 countries demonstrated
significant differences favoring girls.
In 8th grade math achievement, no difference in 22 of 42
countries; 7 countries demonstrated a difference favoring boys
and 12 favoring girls.
At 4th and 8th grade levels, the largest achievement differences in
mathematics favored girls - particularly in Arabic-speaking
countries from the Middle East (e.g. Oman, Qatar, UAE).
The data from TIMSS and PISA differ. TIMSS indicates no significant
gender gap in math achievement in most countries. The PISA report
indicates that boys are outperforming girls in math achievement in many
countries. The PISA assesses applied mathematical literacy (how students
demonstrate their overall math knowledge), whereas TIMSS assesses
what they call Attained Curriculum (what students have been taught and
what they have learned). Thus, girls may be performing as well as boys in
class-based assessments but the gap emerges when students are