“Development of a balanced personalityis promoted by
fostering the attitudes and qualities that enable students to live
in a complex and changing social environment. (Veenman,
“The self-concept of slower, older students is enhanced when
they are asked to tutor younger students in their class (Veenman,
“More secure teacher-student relationships may be established
as the student remains with the same teacher for 2 or more
years (Veenman, 1995).”
“Multiage grouping invites cooperation and other forms of pro-social behavior and thus appears to minimize competitive
pressures and the need for discipline (Ford, 1977).”
The literature is broken into 3 distinct areas: Theory, practice and
research evidence (Ford, 1977).
Up to 1977, just a few research studies described emotional and
social “gains” advocated in theory. Research since 1977
showsbetter attitude towards schoolon the part of MAC
students, and for somegreater self-esteem, self-concept,
aspirations and feelings of success, which grew over time.
However, 2 studies of longer duration did show decreased
anxiety after the initial year in a MAC (Ford, 1977).
The pro-social effects of MAC were overwhelmingly positive in a
meta analysis quantitative research studies on MAC classrooms
Veenman retort in 1996 to the article criticizing his 1995 work
and suggesting that MACs result in slightly negative effect on
student achievement. He retorts with a sophisticated meta-analysis of the literature by effect size and notes the positive
effects of cooperative learning and reciprocal teaching.